The Twenty-second Infantry Illinois Volunteers was organized at Belleville, Illinois, May 11, 1861, and was mustered into
the United States service for three years, at Caseyville, Illinois, June 25, 1861, by Captain T.G. Pitcher, U.S.A.
On July 11, the Regiment moved to Bird's Point, Missouri and was first engaged at the Battle of Belmont on November 7,
1861 -three being left to guard transports and 144 casualties.
On January 12, 1862, the 22nd Illinois made a reconnoisance, under General Grant, into Kentucky in the rear of Columbus.
During this time the Twenty-second was on detached duty a great deal of the time, and not infrequently had single-handed engagements
with the enemy.
On August 19, 1862 Colonel Dougherty, with Companies A, B, C, D and E, attacked Colonel Hunter at Charleston, Missouri,
in the night, and drove him from his camp to the town in a hand-to-hand fight, capturing many prisoners and horses. In this
engagement the Twenty-second lost 1 killed and 11 wounded, including Colonel Dougherty, whose shoulder was broken with the
butt of a gun, and Captain Johnson, who received a gunshot through the right leg. After this engagement, the Regiment again
returned to Bird's Point.
Early in the spring of 1862, the Regiment left camp, with one day's cooked rations, to engage General Jeff. Thompson,
who was known to be in the neighborhood in force. Coming up with him at Sikestown, a running fight ensued, when he was driven
to his fortifications at New Madrid. In this engagement, the Twenty-second captured two guns and a few prisoners, and returned
to camp the third day without the loss of a man. Then on April 8, 1862, expeditions to Tiptonville, under General Paine, to
intercept retreating enemy from Island No. 10. Captured 4,000 prisoners, 2 Generals, and a large quantity of stores, ammunition,
arms and guns.
May, 3, 5 and 9, 1862, skirmishes before Farmington, and Battle of Farmington.
The Regiment was engaged in the siege of Corinth, and in pursuit of the enemy two weeks, in June. The last day of the
siege Captain Johnson was again wounded, receiving a gunshot through the head.
The Twenty-second was engaged guarding Memphis & Charleston Railroad until August 26, 1862, when it fell back to Nashville
by forced marches, arriving September 11, where it remained the balance of the year.
December 31, 1862, and January 1 and 2, 1863, the Regiment was engaged in the battle of Stone river, where it lost 199
out of 342 men going into action. Lieutenant Colonel Swanwick was wounded and taken prisoner, and remained at Atlanta and
Richmond (Libby) until May, 1863. Every horse belonging to the Regiment, including the Battery, was killed. After the Occupation
of Murfreesboro, the Regiment was in camp at different points around that place foraging and skirmishing through the winter
and spring. The Twenty-second marched with the Army of the Cumberland, early in June, southward, crossing the Tennessee River
at Bridgeport, Alabama, about September 1.
The Regiment was engaged in the battle of Chikamauga, September 19, and 20, on the extreme right of the Army under General
Sheridan, losing 135 officers and men, out of an aggregate of less than 300. In proof of the severity of the action on the
19th, the Regiment lost 96 men in less than ten minutes, most of whom were down. . The Regiment remained in and around Chattanooga,
suffering, in common with the rest of the army, from exposure and want of provisions, being frequently on less than half rations,
and almost destitute of blankets, clothing, tents, etc., until the 26th of November, when, with the remainder of General Sheridan's
Division, it was engaged in storming the heights of Mission Ridge, losing again between 30 and 40 out of the mere skeleton
to which it had previously been reduced. The few men remaining fit for duty marched, about the last of the month, to the relief
of Knoxville, passing the greater part of that severe winter (1863-64) in the mountains of East Tennessee. Marching, in the
month of January, 1864, to Dandridge, in pursuit of the Rebel Army under General Longstreet--retreating at night, over awful
roads, to Strawberry Plains, and thence marched through Knoxville to Loudon, Tennessee, where it remained long enough to build
log huts and occupy them some weeks; and here, March 6, 1864, received the first full ration since leaving Bridgeport, being
fully six months.
Leaving Louden, Tennessee, the Regiment marched to Cleveland, Tennessee, and there remained until the scanty remnant joined
the grand Army of General Sherman, on the Atlanta campaign. The Regiment was engaged two days at Resaca, having about 20 men
killed and wounded, and in all the other battles and skirmishes, with the exception of Rocky Face and was eleven days and
nights under fire at New Hope Church, until the morning of the 10th of June, when all but the recruits and veterans were ordered
to Springfield, Illinois, for muster out.
The regiment was mustered out at Springfield, Illinois, July 7, 1864. The veterans and recruits whose term of service
had not expired, were consolidated with the Forty-second Regiment Illinois Infantry Volunteers.
It is worth mentioning here that Colonel Dougherty, having lost a leg at the battle of Belmont, never commanded the Regiment
again after that engagement.